Standard Fencing Measures

Posts & Strainers - Grades and sizes (SED = small end diameter)

 

  SED No 1 No 2 No 3 Comment
Round Posts
& Stays
diameter 115-135mm 90-114mm 65-89mm  
Half Rounds flat face 150-175mm 125-149mm 115-124mm Size is measured across flat face
Quarter Rounds flat face 100-125mm 75-99mm 65-74mm Size is measured across one flat face
Strainers diameter 200+mm 175-199mm 150-174mm  
Rounds and half rounds are sometimes available in a 'Premium' grade. This is 136-150mm SED for rounds, and 176mm+ for half rounds.

 

What post to use where:

 

Strainer post At the end of fence lines, and where gates are hung. Usually 2.4m long, in softer ground use a 2.7m or 3.0m strainer. Bigger is usually better, if you can - use No 1 or No 2 strainers braced with No 1 stay posts.
Stay post No 1 or No 2 round posts, usually 2.1 - 2.4m long. Must be free of bends, cracks or large knots.
Angle post Where there is a change in direction on the fence line. Use a strainer post - 2.1m No 3 if a slight angle, 2.4m No 3 if sharper. Brace with a No 2 stay post the same length as the strainer.
Fence post Usually 1.8m long, can be round, half round or quarter round. Use longer posts (2.1m or 2.4m) in softer ground, or where there is greater stock pressure.

 

How much wire in a coil?

High Tensile Wire

 

Diameter mm Length (m)
25kg coil
Recommended Tension (kg force)
1.60 1584 80
2.00 1013 110
2.50 (12.5 gauge) 648 150
3.15 (10 gauge) 408 200
4.00 (8 gauge or 'No 8') 253

300

 

Barbed Wire

Diameter mm Length (m)
25kg coil
Barb Spacing
1.60 500 100
2.50 225 75
2.50 255 150

Soft or Mild Wire

Diameter mm Length (m)
25kg coil)
Length (m)
25kg coil
Recommended Tension (kg force)
1.60 1584 30
2.00 1013 65
2.50 (12.5 gauge) 648 80
3.15 (10 gauge) 408 150
4.00 (8 gauge or 'No 8') 253 250
4.50 200 315

 

How many nails to a kg?

Length (mm) Diameter (mm) Nails per kg (approx)
60 2.80 297
75   3.15 210
90   3.50 140
100     4.00 98
100     4.50 77
125     5.30 45
150     6.00 29

How many staples to a kg?

Length (mm) Diameter (mm) Staples per kg (approx)
27 2.80 360
30 3.15 250
40 4.00 120
45 4.00 115
50 4.00 105

Fences - some standard spacings

 

Stock controlled Type of fence Fence height Wires & type Post spacing /
no. of battens
Comments
Cattle Wire & Batten 1.05 - 1.2m 7-9 wire 2.5HT or
3.15HT or
4mm soft (mild)
4m - 5m
5-6 battens
 
  Post & Wire 1.05 - 1.2m 2-4 wire electric
2.5 HT
5m - 10m depending on contour Electrify 2 or more wires
Sheep Wire & Batten 1.05 - 1.2m 8 wire
2.5HT or
3.15HT or
4mm soft (mild)
4m - 5m
5-6 battens
 
  Post & Wire 1.05 - 1.2m 9-10 wire
2.5HT or
3.15HT or
4mm soft (mild)
3.5 - 5m Or use mesh type fencing
Lambs Wire & Batten 1.05 - 1.2m 9 wire
2.5HT or
3.15HT or
4mm soft (mild)
4m
5-7 battens
Electrify second wire from bottom, or use mesh type fencing
Deer Post & Wire 1.9 - 2.0m Deer netting 5m - 7m post spacing. Deer fencing is covered by specific standards set in law. Refer to the Wild Animal Control Act 1977 - Deer Farming Notice No. 5, 2008.
Goats Wire & Batten 1.05 - 1.2m 7-9 wire
2.5HT or
3.15HT or
4mm soft (mild)
4m - 5m post spacing with 5-6 battens. For added containment, run one electric wire at 2/3 animal height off ground & run a hot wire up stay posts to deter goats climbing up and over strainer posts.
  Post & Wire 1.05 - 1.2m 5+ wire electric
2.5HT or
3.15HT or
4mm soft (mild)
3.5 - 5m Or use mesh type fencing
Pigs Post & Mesh 0.90 -1.0m Wire mesh
+ top and bottom HT wire
3.5 - 5m
depending on contour
Run a single electric hot wire 25cm off ground.
  Post & Wire 0.75m 4 wire electric up to 10m Electrify all wires
Feral Pigs Post & Mesh 1.1m Pig netting
+ top and bottom barbed wire
Wooden post every 4m with metal standard every 1m Bottom barbed wire as close to ground as possible, adjust post spacing to suit contour
Alpacas Wire & Batten 1.05 - 1.2m 7-9 wire
2.5HT,
3.15HT
4mm soft (mild)
4m - 5m
5-6 battens
Or use mesh type fencing
  Post & Wire 1.05 - 1.2m 2-4 wire electric
2.5 HT
5m Electrify 2 or more wires

Gates

Gates can be wooden or metal. Generally speaking metal gates are cheaper and lighter to work with. Metal gates are also easier to open and shut in high wind areas.

Gateways need to be big enough for vehicles and farm machinery to fit through. 14 foot (4.2m) gates are ideal - especially for hay balers, but 12 foot (3.6m) should be the minimum. 12 foot steel gates are usually cheaper than smaller steel gates - because most gate manufacturers make more of that size than any other.

One advantage of wooden gates is that they can be made to fit odd sized gateways.

Basic Cattle Stockyard Measurements:

A very basic set of yards to handle up to 5 cattle or 30 sheep will require a corner in a paddock measuring 5m x 6m. A loading ramp will take up extra space and need truck access.

 

Loading Ramp 700-750mm wide (inside rails), 3.5m-4.5m long, ramp 1.22m above ground level where the truck backs up, sides 1.6m higher than ramp. Close boarded rails up to 750mm high.
Race or chute
Dimensions
660mm wide (inside rails) if straight, 700mm wide if curving, 1.5m high (1.65m for large or stroppy cattle), working side can be 100-150mm lower. Race length - 3.5m to hold the first 2 animals + 1.5m for each extra up the race at the same time.
Race posts & rails  Posts should be 175-200mm SED. 1200mm in ground if rammed, 800-1000mm if concreted. Posts spaced at 1.5m-2m, 150x50mm rails - minimum of 5 rails.
Forcing pen Allow 1.6m2 per animal. Pen no wider than 3m, funneling into race or chute.
Pens Allow 1.6m2 per animal - a 4m x 6m pen will hold 15 animals. 1.5m high with 4 rails (1.65m with 5 rails for large or stroppy cattle), use 150x50mm rails. 175-200mm SED posts, 900-1000mm in ground. Gate posts should be 1200mm in ground. Posts spaced at 1.8m-2.4m
Holding paddocks Fences a little higher than normal - 1.3m high, 8 wire and batten, use 2.1m posts spaced 3-3.6m apart. Allow 5-10m2 per animal - a 15m x 20m holding paddock will hold 30 head comfortably.
Gates Stockyard gates will need to be higher and more robust than paddock gates. Wooden gate manufacturers can produce stockyard gates to order, there are also a number of manufacturers who offer a range of standard steel yard gates as well. Latches need to be stronger, self latching gates are far safer than hook and chain fastening.
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