autumn leaves

There’s media talk of ‘getting back to normal’ after all the happenings of the last months, but nobody seems to know what that will be, at what cost and who is going to pay! At least all of those who sit in parliament should now understand what keeps the country going – and what happens when things stop.


A good indicator of last summer and early autumn is the price of supplements that have gone through the roof – and many small block farmers are feeling the pinch with the possibility of a long winter ahead. When your paddocks become green, just make sure what is growing and learn what all these species look like.

So you could be waiting a while to find ryegrass and clover coming back and there will be plenty of bare areas where the dead thatch has rotted in a matter of days and is a haven for weeds to germinate. So check what they are, and plan your attack on them for the appropriate time – which is not when they are a foot high and flowering, spreading seeds to neighbours. All species of thistles never stop growing along with fireweed, buttercups, wild carrot and redshank. So learn what they all look like.

Each year there’s a regular push to promote ‘pasture renovation’ in autumn, but it’s always costly regardless on what options you take. Just drilling in seed is the simplest, but you really need to spray out what’s there beforehand, otherwise the new tender plants never get a chance. Full cultivation before sowing is far too expensive unless you are doing major earth works, and it takes the paddock out of action for too long.

There is always a mass of old seed (called hard seed) in the soil, which has dropped out of seed heads over the years. If you take a sample of soil from the top 50mm and shake it up with water, note what grass and clover seeds float to the top. These will grow although it will take a longer for them to germinate than any new seed applied. During this slow germination period, weeds of all kinds will grow like mad and you may never see any new grass for a long time or even at all. These weeds need to be controlled – by hand or by spray if there are too many and you want to win the battle.

It’s best to add a general fertiliser at the time of any new seeding, and maybe a light dressing of no more than (25kg N/ha) of Nitrogen fertiliser (Urea) when the new grass plants are about 500mm high, especially if they turn yellow and stop growing. But be very careful when spreading any ‘bag nitrogen’ to keep well away from drains and creeks. And it’s best if a shower washes it in after application. Urea is the current number one hate for environmental pollution.

When looking at what to sow, ask about the grass species that are more drought tolerant than perennial ryegrass. These are cocksfoot, timothy and tall fescue, and there’s a lot of promotion at present of chicory and plantain. But be aware that whatever the advertising says, these herbs are not long-lasting species and cannot be permanently hard grazed like the grasses.

The way dry seasons are becoming more common in many part of the country, means that you can never have enough hay and silage on hand, as supplements are needed in summer and autumn now and not just for winter.

Hay and silage are not cheap feed any more as their quality can be so variable depending on the crops conserved, the wrapping and way it was stored. Large bales of hay and silage are a hazard on small farms, and fewer contractors are making small bales. The other problem is that silage bales only retain their quality at most for a couple of years, and the bales are prone to damage from rats and birds, letting in air and causing mould. Hay will keep for many more years although it’s quality declines too.

A good option is to buy in good quality baled silage early in the season, and plan to use it all up that year. If you buy too much, then you can easily sell it later in the winter rather than keep it for a second year with the risk of bale damage and mould.

Also when it rains and the soil eventually regains moisture, bare ground will pug very easily if you have large cattle running around. Protection of wet soils is now a major priority on small paddocks during autumn and winter, and to avoid damage to the delicate soil structure, consider making a simple standoff pad using wood peelings. Get some advice, as there is now concern over effluent runoff from these pads. The peelings and bark make good compost after being removed and left heaped up for a year.

It’s no good throwing grass seed on to pugged bog holes and expecting it to grow prime pasture. You’ll be lucky if anything germinates unless you put work into letting the soil dry and lightly cultivating it with hand tools before sowing seed. Avoiding waste when feeding out is essential as stock can be very picky. So make them clean up before you feed the next lot. With hay, it’s often a good idea to feed it in a hayrack, which it can be moved and the leftovers cleaned up for compost. It’s a good time to see what weeds are in the hay and remove things like docks, ragwort and thistles and burn them so their seeds don’t spread. The plants may look dead but the seeds will still germinate.

You should not need to purchase expensive concentrate feeds unless stock are very thin and not thriving. Then get a vet check before spending money on ‘bag feed’. If you do need concentrates, feed them in troughs and only feed what stock can clean up in one go. You don’t want feed to get wet and all the
Sparrows in the district helping themselves, and risking the spread of salmonella. Avoid buying Palm Kernal Expeller (PKE), as you are contributing to the decimation of Indonesian native forests.

It’s an ideal time to prune willow and poplar trees before the leaves die off and feed them to stock. Also plan where to plant more trees this winter, so you can coppice them in a rotation in the dry spells in years ahead. They provide good quality feed as well as shade and are also rich in minerals.


Rams in the North Island should have their work finished. Leaving them out for longer hoping that more ewes will cycle is not a good idea, as you’ll end up with lambs right up till Christmas, and they become a costly nuisance on the farm. Fitting a mating harness to the ram is the only way to find out which ewes have returned to the ram, and especially to find any that have never cycled. Theses should be sold to save feed, as they’ll never end up as good productive ewes over a long lifetime. The longer the ewe lives when weaning a lamb each year, the more she covers her costs. Make sure the ram harness and crayons are working well before deciding what the mating marks mean, as not all marks are clear, especially if a ram doesn’t mount the ewe more than once to serve properly.

The main thing is to keep feeding ewes well and treat any skinny ewes as an urgent priority to get them into good condition for lambing. They could need expensive concentrates, and if this is not an option, they should be sold (at a loss possibly) as you clearly have too many on the farm. Lambing skinny ewes will lead to problems and losses of both ewes and lambs, and a lot of extra work and worry you don’t need in spring. Ewes can only milk well if they are in good body condition before lambing and are fed well.

With today’s high fertility sheep breeds, ewes need to be kept in good condition all year round. See our website to learn how to ‘body condition score’ sheep and find out what score is needed at each stage of the season. You need to feel the backs of the sheep as wool can cover up a lot of protruding bones. If you can see bones sticking out from a distance – those animals are in serious need of attention. One way of getting more output from a sheep flock is to put the hoggets to the ram, but this needs planning.

Hoggets need to be at least 45kg and in good body condition, and then kept well fed right through to their next two-tooth lambing. This is rarely possible on small blocks where there’s generally not enough paddocks or extra feed to achieve this. So hoggets often end up lambing with very poor results and remain stunted for the rest of their days. The answer is to keep them away from the ram if possible.

Don’t forget care for the rams after mating is over, as they are often the most neglected animals on the farm, despite the money spent on them. If you are keeping any rams, check their health and feed them well to recover condition straight after mating or they may not survive the winter. If rams have broken down over mating, get rid of them immediately to save feed. And phone the breeder you got them from to report what happened. Breeders will welcome the feedback and replace the ram or may give you a discount next year.

Shearing decisions need to be made on the basis of wool length. Today’s market and modern machinery needs wool a minimum of 100mm in length, and with no break in the staple when pulled between fingers. And it’s only the main body wool that’s worth selling. A better option is to let the shearer take the wool and charge accordingly as he/she has a better chance of making up a line to get the best price. Wool prices have picked up a bit but the wool cheque will still not cover shearing costs.

Sheep will scour on green autumn feed so don’t assume it’s worms. Get a Faecal Egg Count (FEC) done through your vet to make sure the problem is internal parasites and not just diet. The chances are much higher that it’s lack of feed or poor feed quality that’s the problem. The incidence of drench resistance in sheep is increasing at great pace, so don’t use long-term worm drenches such as capsules on any sheep, especially on mature ewes despite what the advertising says. And don’t think you have to drench young sheep every 28 days through winter. Ewes should not need drenching as they should have developed a natural immunity, so if they are not thriving - they need feed and not drench.

Facial Eczema spores should all have disappeared with the cooler nights and declining soil temperatures, but the effects of their toxins could still be seen in sheep not thriving and getting thin. A few clinical cases mean other sheep will have subclinical disease and liver damage, causing problems and deaths in late pregnancy and especially at lambing. Talk to your vet about being prepared for this.


Young stock such as calves and yearlings are always the main concern going into winter, and they have done it hard coming into autumn. If they get down in condition and stop growing, their mature target weights are affected and they will never make top stock. There is the theory of ‘compensatory growth’ where with good feeding after a period of low nutrition, animals will catch up in weight and size.

This may happen, but it will take extra time so they’ll be on the farm longer, and during this time they’ll need more feed, which could have been fed to more productive stock. So they are all-round losers and are best culled to take the least financial loss on them. Keeping them on will only lose more value. Young stock often go down hill fast in autumn where they scour badly, their faeces are often light green and they go to skin and bone. It goes under the general name of ‘Autumn Ill Thrift’, which most folk assume is worms, which they treat by pourons at 3-weekly intervals. This may dry up the scour for a few days before it starts again.

Veterinary blood tests show that it’s a combination of mineral and trace element deficiencies, worms, yersiniosis and salmonella and excess protein and low Dry Matter in the grass. So get a correct veterinary diagnosis before spending money on worm drench that may not work. Affected stock will need some concentrate meal to increase the Dry Matter intake of the diet, but it may take some time to get them to improving. Urgent vet help is essential.

If cows got skinny in the dry summer, they will need plenty supplementary feed from now on. So putting condition back on thin cows before calving is a priority, but it can take a couple of months to do so, even with top quality feed.

It takes 180kg of Dry Matter to replace one condition score over and above what a cow needs for maintenance. All this can add up to a lot of feed each day, and will need a few weeks. So if your cows are at CS 3 with shoulders looking like a mountain ridge, they need to be at CS5 for calving in August, the arithmetic will tell you what’s needed in feed demand. It there is no real flush of pasture before calving, cash will be needed to invest in plenty of supplementary feed.

Talk to your veterinarian about feeding high-energy products like molasses or mineral licks to any cattle that need a nutritional boost during winter and early spring. But remember this will have to be paid for. If your farm has resident cattle ticks, and young stock and even mature cows are not thriving and going
down with anaemia, consult your vet promptly to see if it’s the newly arrived Theileria protozoan parasite which the ticks are spreading.

Facial eczema risks should be over but watch for stock not thriving over winter, as it could be liver damage from FE earlier in the season. Talk to your vet about treatment, and especially about copper supplementation after long periods of zinc treatment, which strips copper from the liver.

Farm Management

  • Check the financial budget for expenses appearing out of the blue, especially for supplementary feed and vet visits.
  • Check the water supply and reticulation before winter.
  • Check power fences regularly.
  • Keep farm records up to date and the farm accounts.
  • Make sure ALL cattle are tagged and compliant with NAIT. There are no exceptions, even for your home kill animals.
  • It’s also a good time to get your soil tested to see if there’s a soil fertility problem, and until you fix that, all other investment in fertilisers will be wasted. Start by looking at lime.
  • Block security needs to be ongoing – keep checking your systems and liven up your neighbourhood-watch group, especially if going away at any time.
  • More people now are fitting security cameras and using the latest technology.
    Buy a good quality lockable mailbox for your entrance and reverse the gudgeon on the top hinge on road gates. Or cancel your mail or get your neighbours to collect it.
  • Check your property for fire protection and make sure fire engines and ambulances can get right up to your house and buildings.
  • Farm bikes are still regularly killing people of all ages. Buy a safety frame and helmet, despite what some folk will tell you. Don’t let children ride farm quad bikes.
  • Keep pruning trees, especially those overhanging boundary fences on the side roadways. If branches fall, you will suffer the legal consequences!
    NEVER graze the road verge now with the risk of accidents and insurance liabilities. Check your insurance cover.