We have recently brought a small lifestyle block (~2 acres) near Feilding and have been busy planting it up with Liquid Ambers/ American sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) down the drive and lining one fence line with griselinia which i plan to hedge. Site is well sheltered to East and West and is flat and fairly well drained.
I want to plant one more tree in what will eventually be a small paddock. Id like to have it for shade in summer (not worried if its evergreen or deciduous) and have a nice shape/ be a nice focal point.
Ive been looking at various Oaks but open to other ideas/ guidance on the best species.
Walnuts are my only no go as im allergic
Hi, my parents have a huge Copper beech tree at the bottom of their drive, my grandparents planted it in the 1950's. Its my favourite deciduous tree, I don't have room for such a big specimen on our 5 acres, so the 2 ive planted will be kept trimmed to under 10 m. Golden Totara are also lovely trees, Horopito (the Red leopard one is gorgeous), Puriri attracts native birds, Hoheria has lovely blossom too- bees love it
Oh I hadn't though of copper beech! Which is surprising as our neighbors have a huge one I love. I can't seem to find much on how safe they are for stock on Dr Google so hopefully someone here will know!
Here are some of my favourites:
Flowering Cherry (spring show)... or the fruiting ones
Jacaranda, (summer show)
Silver Birch (Betula pendulata) autumn colours, white bark and weeping habit
Weeping willow (Salix babylonica) Summer shade. So beautiful when the branches sweep the ground.
Magnolia (spring show)
Kowhai... spring show of yellow flowers. seed pods later on.
Colorado Blue Spruce (Picea pungens) I think these are so beautiful in colour, shape and close up. Do not prune.
Cedrus deodara... a true Cedar, aka Himalayan Cedar... (makes a beautiful weeping "fairy" Christmas tree while small... but grows to a large/wide/tall tree)
Southern Woods .co .nz have a wonderful catalogue of many different trees for different purposes.Based near Christchurch.
How about a group of fruit trees?
Acorns aren't good things for stock to eat, but I've never seen an animal that does...except for pigs and squirrels, which they don't seem to harm. My favourite is the scarlet oak. I planted two of them three years ago [at Linton], with wind protection from our ferocious southerlies. The one in the drier place is now 3m high, and happily handling the wind; the other is slower, owing to its wet feet, I think.
If you are planning on planting ornamentals in a paddock you might occasionally graze with stock of any sort, you will certainly need to do due diligence on toxicity. Your liquid amber for instance is high in tannin, and may have a detrimental effect on livestock if eaten in quantity or when the autumn leaf drop has concentrated the tannin's. Can lead to illness and possible death. This is the same problem with oak.
Many cattle, sometimes into the hundreds are made sick every year from eating leaves and acorns from oat trees. And some, even dozens some years, die every year.. They eat too much if they do not have enough pasture to dilute the poisons, which happens every drought.
For the last ten yearss I have been cutting down all the lovely trees that the previous owner and that I planted. And when you get old, cutting down and cutting up trees is a bother. Trees need to be planted at least 10 m from the egde of a road if they are likely to grow more than 10 meters high. It is expensive hiring a "cherry picker" to do a high prune when you have to get a bug truck up the drive. We also spend many wasted hours getting the leaves off the drive and out of the ditches.
I strongly recommend that you get rid of all your drive plantings, now while it is easy.
LongRidge, please cite your sources. I've just done some actual research on tannin poisoning, and, in particular from oak trees in paddocks.
Only a few species of North American oak trees pose a high risk; Scarlet oak, the species I recommended, is not one of them, nor is any other North American species available in New Zealand.
The only serious occurrence of oak tannin poisoning in the last 35 years in the United States occurred in 1985, when 2700 snowbound cattle died in California, after exclusively subsisting for a week on one of the high risk species.
Advice from the Utah State Dept of Agriculture to avoid oak tannin poisoning [from any of the high-risk species] is as follows:
Keep stock off young plants.
Practice good pasture management: offer a diverse forage base.
“Generally, animals must eat 75% of their diet to be intoxicated.” [Here, 'intoxicated' means poisoned; not drunk!]
I didn't manage to find any tannin-related information about European or Asian species of oak.
As well as oaks, many other trees containing tannins are available in New Zealand, including species of wattle, eucalyptus, birch, and pine. Sainfoin, a legume highly valued as a forage/fodder crop, also contains tannins.
Darn .... I hoped that question would not be asked
I have two years of "Surveillance" vol 33 no 3 Sept 2006 and vol 34 no 3 Sept 2007, which both have cases of acorn poisoning reported in the review of diagnostic cases. I have made the assumption that 99 vets per 100 would not bother getting a diagnostic report being done, and 99 out of 100 farmers would not bother asking their vet to diagnose an oak poisoning. This is based on "Quercus species poisoning" being well enough known that Prof B W Manktelow recorded it as a source of plant poisoning in his "The Veterinary Handbook" in 1984. He describes it as "tannic acid and perhaps other toxins in acorns, leaves or buds of Quercus spp".
The horse in question died despite the best care from a top New Zealand Equine vet and it was a horrible way to die. The oak species was the standard English variety seen a lot around New Zealand.
One good reason why I cautioned due diligence in respect to checking tree toxicity if planting out a small paddock that is is likely to be grazed.
Remember, I did not suggest that tannins cannot harm animals, only that the danger to animals is much overrated.
I now know that they can be a serious hazard to horses.
However, domestic ruminants [cattle, sheep, goats, deer, etc], if slowly introduced to tannins, develop protein rich polypeptides in their saliva that neutralise the tannins. There is even some recent research suggesting animals may eat them as a natural vermifuge!
Vide: "There are potential benefits of using CT and HT [Condensed and Hydrolysable Tannins] for anthelmintic purposes due to their ability to inhibit egg hatching and larval motility of gastrointestinal nematode parasites..."
Harley D. Naumann1*, Luis O. Tedeschi2, Wayne E. Zeller3, Nichole F. Huntley4. The role of condensed tannins in ruminant animal production: advances,limitations and future directions. Brazilian Journal of Animal Science, 46(12):929-949, 2017
1 University of Missouri, Division of Plant Sciences, Columbia, MO, USA.
2 Texas A&M University, Department of Animal Sciences, College Station, TX, USA.
3 United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center, Madison, WI, USA.
4 Iowa State University, Department of Animal Sciences, Ames, IA, USA.