The word 'refugia' seemed to appear out of the blue about 5-6 years ago, and was used by veterinarians and parasitologists when talking to farmers about worms (internal parasites) in sheep and in cattle.
Lumps, bumps, bruises and swellings of all types are all too common in livestock. So if you spot a lump on your horse or cattle-beast or sheep, what does it mean? How can you tell what it is, and what should you do about it?
Drench (anthelmintic) resistance is a huge and growing problem on livestock farms, particularly with sheep and goats. If you have drench resistance on your farm it means that some of the worms on your pasture and in your sheep or goats have developed resistance to a particular type of anthelmintic, so drenching with anthelmintics in that drench family will not be effective in getting rid of these worms.
When giving injections always get veterinary advice to make sure the injections are appropriate and you know the correct procedure. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions to the letter. Various pathogenic bacteria are present on the surface of the skin and these may produce infection if injected with the medication.